As one of the most famous regions in Italy, Tuscany’s appeal for expats almost goes without saying. From the beautiful scenery and idyllic villages to some of the best food in Italy (which is saying something), there’s plenty to draw you in.
But what is living in Tuscany actually like for expats? You’ll find the answer to that question here as we discuss the cost of living, some of the area’s main appeals, and some of the best (and cheapest) places in Tuscany to settle down.
Living In Tuscany
Is Tuscany a good place to live?
Tuscany is one of the best regions to live in Italy if you enjoy Italian culture, as it’s one of the best examples in the country.
It’s well located for travel in Italy and neighbouring countries, is home to Florence and other famous towns, and has great weather. In short, there are plenty of reasons why Tuscany is a great place to live.
One of Tuscany’s main draws is its great location in Italy. It’s slightly north of the centre and has a large stretch of Mediterranean coastline. But within a short distance, you’ll find rolling hills and vineyards, so there’s something for everyone.
There are hills and mountains that create their own climate, and what a great climate it is. It still gets warm in the summer but nowhere near as hot as southern Italy. The hottest summer days might reach around 30C, while in winter it only drops to around 11C.
Coastal areas are more temperate and hilly areas get a lot of rain in the winter. Even so, the warmer temperatures and fertile fields more than compensate for the extra rain!
The food and wine opportunities in Tuscany almost don’t need mentioning. It’s home to famous wine varieties like Chianti and some of Italy’s best food adventures. Luckily, there are numerous wine tours and tasting experiences, which appeal to residents and tourists alike.
Tuscany is also home to much of Italy’s truffle industry, which should give you some idea about the level of gastronomy in the area.
Finally, there are Tuscany’s cultural offerings.
The region’s capital is Florence, which is known as the Cradle of the Renaissance. Here you’ll find amazing art and architecture and some important history in its museums and galleries.
Tuscany also includes other tourist hotspots such as Pisa and Siena. Even after you become a permanent resident in the region, there will be plenty to draw you back to these cities time and time again.
In short, Tuscany has so much to offer expats. You can choose between quaint seaside villages or bustling cultural cities. Either way, Tuscany is certainly a region of Italy that won’t disappoint.
What’s it like to live in Tuscany?
Tuscany offers expats plenty in the way of activities and culture. You have options for an active lifestyle or the opportunity to relax in comfort. Whether you choose to live in the hills or by the sea, living in Tuscany is great.
Coastal areas are favourite tourist destinations, and as a result, watersports are quite popular. There are opportunities for sailing and water skiing but also business opportunities if that’s what you want from your new life abroad.
The region’s major hotspots are very popular with tourists in the summer. In fact, Tuscany is the second most popular region in Italy for tourists. As you’d expect, this means some places get quite busy in the peak season.
This may affect your quality of life to an extent, but this depends on what you want from your new life abroad. If you think tourism would be a con, consider moving to a less visited area. Tuscany covers about 23,000 square km of space, so you’re not short of options!
As with anywhere else in Italy, the pace of life is more relaxed than in places like the UK or the USA. Most shops close over the lunch period, and in quieter areas have something of a “we’ll open when we feel like it” policy. But, once you adjust to this way of life, you won’t look back.
So, what’s it like to live in Tuscany? Well, take everything good about living in Italy, dial it up a few notches, and compress it all into a single region. And that’s your answer.
Is Tuscany expensive to live in?
As a region, Tuscany is one of the more expensive places to live in Italy. This is because of its association with tourism. However, the cost of living in Tuscany is still fairly low, and house prices are attractive. As this will likely be one of your main expenses, everything else will be tolerable.
Florence, the region’s capital, is the most expensive place to live in Tuscany. But, even here, costs are nearly 14% lower than if you live in London and 23% lower than if you are in New York. Groceries are more expensive, but you can get around this by shopping at farmer’s markets and buying local produce.
If you choose to rent a property, you could pay as much as £900 (€1,040) a month for a central apartment. Of course, more rural areas will be considerably cheaper.
Also, property prices vary depending on where you look. Properties in central Florence can cost roughly £4,100 (€4,760) per square metre. But, on the other side, you can find rural properties in need of renovation for as little as £15,000 (€17,500/ $21,200).
If you’re willing to spend a bit of time searching, property auctions are a great idea because their starting price drops by 20% every time the property fails to sell. So, with a bit of keen searching and patience, you could land a bargain in a perfect area.
Find out more about buying a property in Italy, the rules, due diligence and how it works in our Buying A Property In Italy guide.
In terms of a monthly budget, two people could happily live on £2,000 (€2,300/ $2,830) a month in Tuscany. Even in urban areas like Florence, this amount would get you a comfortable life. In rural areas, however, you could live very comfortably on this much money.
Is Tuscany safe?
Tuscany is a safe place to live, as, even in cities, crime rates are fairly low. Tourist-heavy areas will always have higher crime rates, but in rural villages, crime isn’t thought about. Italy is well known for its family- and community-centred culture, which helps keep crime rates quite low.
Even in Florence, crime rates are low to moderate and much lower than in most British cities. And, remember, this is the region’s capital and a tourist-heavy area, so other towns are much safer.
The main concern with crime in Florence is theft, both from homes and vehicles. This is understandable and is often the case in cities anyway, particularly in places favoured by tourists. But in small towns and villages, many residents leave their doors unlocked, which should tell you something about their perception of crime in the area.
In short, you shouldn’t be concerned about safety in Florence if you don’t have concerns about your current home. Crime rates in Florence are likely lower, and once you integrate into the local community, you’ll have plenty of people watching out for your safety.
Do they speak English in Tuscany?
English is widely spoken in Tuscany due to the tourism industry. This is particularly true in places like Florence and Pisa and in coastal towns, as these are where many tourists visit.
You will find that small towns and villages finding somebody who speaks good English might be more difficult. Learning a bit of Italian before moving will make life a lot easier, even if you just pick up a few simple phrases to start with.
Luckily, there are plenty of Italian language schools in Tuscany, many of which are geared towards expats. And, if attending a formal school doesn’t appeal to you, you’ll likely find a group of local expats and Italians who you can gather into a language exchange group.
The pros and cons of living in Tuscany
There’s very little about living in Tuscany that could be considered a negative. But, it’s worth considering these minor points before settling on this as your new place to live.
Here’s a list of the main pros and cons of living in Tuscany.
The pros of living in Tuscany
1. Great sense of community
Italy is famous for its family-centred community. Luckily, this sentiment extends to expats too, meaning you should find it easy to integrate into local groups if you choose.
Of course, this is far more applicable to smaller towns, but even in cities, it won’t take you long to become friendly with your local shop owners.
2. Some of the best food and drink in the world
Italy’s food is some of the best in the world, and Tuscany’s is some of the best in Italy.
Local produce is inexpensive and of great quality (just be prepared to eat seasonally), and, unsurprisingly, Tuscans save much of the best wine for themselves. Eating out is inexpensive and there are some amazing regional dishes to sample.
3. Incredible scenery
Tuscany ranges from mountains to the sea in a relatively small area. You could easily spend one day hiking in the Apennines and the next relaxing by the Mediterranean in Castiglione. The region also has 120 protected nature reserves, rolling hills of grapevines, and so much more for you to enjoy.
4. Amazing architecture and culture
Whether you’re a history buff or not, Tuscany’s association with Renaissance art is one of its main draws. The region is home to 7 UNESCO World Heritage Sites related to the Renaissance period.
Add to this the hundreds of museums and galleries, and a great selection of opera houses and theatres, and you won’t be short of things to do.
5. High quality of life
Tuscany has one of the best qualities of life in Europe, and it’s easy to see why.
Local food is healthy, the climate is favourable, and there are plenty of opportunities for outdoor activities. Its quality of life also extends to things like good public transport and international connections and its low cost of living. In short, there’s plenty to appreciate here.
The cons of living in Tuscany
Granted, this isn’t a deal-breaker, but it belongs on a list of potential downsides to living in Tuscany. You’ll know when it reaches peak tourist season.
The easiest way to avoid the worst of this is to steer clear of popular areas, such as Pisa and Florence. Luckily, there are numerous small villages and towns where tourists don’t step foot.
2. Possibly dry social life
This is more of a subjective one, as it depends on what you want from your social life. Local bars are the main meeting spots in rural towns, which can be a downside if you’re not a big drinker. The easiest way to overcome this is to live in a city or ensure you choose an area with a larger expat community.
3. A car is a must
Again, this isn’t really a negative specific to living in Tuscany. If you decide on a rural town, don’t expect there to be decent public transport connections. A daily bus is about the most you can expect. So, if you plan on doing anything, you’ll need a car.
4. No flat-rate tax for expat retirees
Unfortunately, Tuscany is not on the list of the regions where Italy offers a 7% flat tax incentive for retirees, so you can’t benefit from a 9 year-long tax discount on your retirement income.
The best places to live in Tuscany
As you can imagine, Tuscany has plenty of great places to settle down. Here are some of the best places to live in Tuscany that aren’t the usual suspects.
Lucca is west of Florence but still contains plenty of historic landmarks and traditional Tuscan charm.
Tourism is an important industry for the city, but nowhere near the same level as places like Pisa or Florence. Importantly, this means there are plenty of employment opportunities if you need them but that you don’t have to deal with insane amounts of tourists in the peak season.
Volterra arguably captures everything about Tuscan living. It’s a medieval town built on a hill and contains numerous museums and galleries, and a big castle.
The local countryside is home to vineyards and olive groves, and the local restaurants reflect this in their food. It’s not as popular with tourists, and this helps to keep the cost of living much lower.
Although technically in Tuscany, Portoferraio is located on the island of Elba, which is off the Tuscan coast. You can reach the mainland by ferry but the island has everything you need anyway. The town is lovely with narrow cobbled streets and rich medieval heritage, and has plenty of great restaurants.
4. Castagneto Carducci
Named after the Italian poet Giosue Carducci, this small town is located in the hills about 10km from the coast. Its location is very Tuscan and gives you opportunities to enjoy every positive aspect of the region’s geography.
The town is known for its wine and good, making it a good place to live if you enjoy your cuisine.
The cheapest places to live in Tuscany
Although Tuscany is by no means an expensive place to live, some towns stand out as being incredibly cheap. Whether it’s property prices or the cost of living, here are some of the cheapest places to live in Tuscany.
Monteriggioni is another medieval walled town located in the province of Siena. It’s central in Tuscany, meaning it’s easy to visit larger towns and cities. Although it does draw tourists due to its wine production and historic buildings, property prices are very low.
2. Tavarnelle Val di Pesa
Tavarnelle Val di Pesa is a small village roughly 37km south of Florence. This gives you a much quieter way of life but easy access to the region’s capital.
The cost of living is low, as are property prices. You can find renovation properties on the outskirts of the village for next to nothing.
Pistoia is a surprisingly hidden city in Tuscany about 30km northwest of Florence. It has a booming flower trade, which is a sight to behold in the spring. It’s also home to an annual music festival, which has hosted artists such as David Bowie and Bob Dylan in the past.
4. Borgo San Lorenzo
Borgo San Lorenzo is near the foothills of the Apennines so would be a good choice if you’re interested in hiking and outdoor activities. It’s associated with the Medici family and so has lots of interesting history to explore. As a more rural area, you’ll have an easy time finding cheap properties on the outskirts.
Pienza is another hidden gem in Tuscany. It’s a small town in the Siena province and is home to pecorino cheese, which is made from sheep bred in the area.
In 1996, the whole town became a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which should give you some indication of its beauty. Even so, property prices and the cost of living are fairly low, although it’s a popular area with food tourists.
Where do expats live in Tuscany?
Tuscany is moderately popular with expats, less so than some southern regions of Italy. Many expats gather around the main cities, so there are numerous foreign communities living in Florence and Pisa, and in towns close to airports.
Other popular expat destinations include Lucca, Chianti, and San Gimignano. You can also expect to find larger concentrations of expats in some satellite towns around larger cities, such as Tavarnelle Val di Pesa mentioned above.
If you’re keen to mix with expat groups in Tuscany, there are plenty of ways to connect. Facebook, of course, is a good starting point, as you’ll find plenty of dedicated groups and communities.
Also, visiting Italian language schools in the region will be a good way to meet local expats in similar situations. Of course, if you’re not as interested in mixing with expats in your new Tuscan home, there are plenty of places to live off the beaten expat track.
Retiring to Tuscany
Retiring to Tuscany is a good idea if you enjoy the Italian way of life. The region’s central area has the highest property prices, particularly in larger cities. For those wishing for a less expensive retirement, coastal towns or rural hill towns are always good choices for a low cost of living.
The absolute lowest prices are in the region’s corners, in areas such as Lunigiana and Lazio. If you’ve got a bit of money saved up, areas in the Golden Triangle (Florence, Volterra, and Siena) can easily run into the millions of euros. Some exclusive coastal towns, such as Viareggio, can match these prices too.
Of course, it all depends on what you want from retiring to Tuscany. If an outdoor, active lifestyle is your thing, you’ll be spoilt for choice. You could settle down pretty much anywhere and still have access to both the mountains and the coast. This is, after all, the joy of Tuscany.
Tuscany has plenty to offer those seeking different kinds of retirement. There are plenty of cultural activities, great outdoor spaces, golf, and great food and wine. Considering the high quality of life in the region, it’s easy to see why Tuscany has one of the highest life expectancies in Italy.
Moving to Tuscany as a non-EU citizen
Moving to Tuscany from non-EU countries such as the UK or the USA is quite possible. it’s just become a bit more long-winded for Brits post-Brexit.
You’ll need to apply for an elective residency visa, as non-EU citizens do. However, you can still apply for permanent residency after living in Italy for 5 years. You can find more details about an elective residency visa in our Living In Italy guide in Residency in Italy for non-EU citizens section.
You don’t need to be an Italian resident to purchase property in the country. This means it’s easy to decide on a property before making the move.
There are numerous relocation services available for expats, which help to guide you through the whole buying and moving process. As they handle all the paperwork for you (which can be a lot in Italy), it’s definitely worth the expense.
Final thoughts on living in Tuscany
Overall, living in Tuscany has numerous benefits regardless of your reason for moving there. Whether you’re seeking employment or relocating in retirement, you could do a lot worse than Tuscany.
The region encapsulates everything positive about Italian culture – from its food and wine to its beautiful architecture and sense of community. Providing you’re willing to commit, moving to Tuscany could be the best thing you ever do.
You might find useful:
- Living In Italy – The Expats’ Essential Guide
- The Best Places To Live In Italy For Expats
- Didn’t find what you were looking for or need further advice? Comment with your question below and we will do our best to help.
What is Volterra like? I’ve been looking for work overseas and saw a suitable position in Volterra. I am an artist and it is in an arts related company. I don’t speak any Italian though.
Where can I get visa info on relocating to Italy for work?
Thanks so much!
Thank you for reading our article about Italy and Tuscany and contributing to our knowledge base.
Ok, while your question seems simple and straightforward, it couldn’t be further from that.
To begin, Volterra – and I will submit the disclaimer that I have not personally been to or lived in Volterra.
With that said, it is a very small comune, roughly only 10,000 residents per the most recent Italian government statistics. And I do have a lot of experience with small communes.
The probability that you can get by living and working, without any Italian, is highly unlikely. The chances that there is any sort of English-speaking community there is very low. However, it is not impossible – just unlikely.
A good indicator would be to simply look at the website of the company you are talking about in Private Mode – Incognito and see if it defaults to English or Italian. Chrome will often auto-translate sites.
If the company website doesn’t even have an English version of their site, then it doesn’t conduct business in English – so where does that leave you?
I will say this. It is unlikely the company or anyone speaks English as Volterra is considered an agricultural / farming economy.
Being able to communicate with the company is absolutely pivotal to obtaining any work visa, as the company is required to provide you with the initial work permit. The company is required to conduct the initial clearance to get you the permit and then you can proceed to get the work visa.
On that note – work visas in Italy are highly competitive (among the most competitive in Europe).
Italy only opens a specific quota each year. For 2023, there are roughly 82,000. However, of that number, more than half are specifically designated for seasonal workers (i.e. agricultural) and the remaining for non-seasonal workers.
From there, less than 39,000 non-seasonal visas are divided between self-employed and those working for companies. Only 6,000 are allotted for people who have been awarded a work permit.
So, it is very competitive, and unless you can get the company to pull its side of the deal, it simply won’t happen for you.
Now, the work visa is purely a federal matter, but the work permit begins at the comune level. The company must prove to the comune that there are no locals in or around the comune who can do that job and it needs you – a foreigner – to do it.
Once the comune agrees, it will certify the decision, and the company can then go to the next level – regional authorities – to get the work permit.
And there is more, but you get the idea.
So, you need to begin your job search by reaching out to companies and not only searching job boards.
You have not stated whether you are a US citizen or not but here is the Italian Embassy’s information page about working in Italy from the Italian Embassy in the United States.
It is important to know what country your passport has been issued from, as not all countries have the same visa and immigration processes.
Hope that helps Tali. Best of luck to you in your journey.
Thanks for your question and using our knowledge base.
Julian – Global Talon
Explore, Experience, Engage
I am an American but with Italian roots. I’ve often thought of retiring around Arezzo (like Subbiano or Cortona or similar). I do prefer more rural than a large town. Any suggestions about this area, or should I try to expand a bit further out. I have never been to Italy, but I have heard much good. I have a decent retirement income and I’m 80 years old
Hello OldRanger –
Thank you for reading our article about Italy and Tuscany and contributing to our knowledge base.
Strange as it is, I am relatively close to your requested region at the moment. I have been living in the area for a few months now.
As you say that you have never been to Italy, I would greatly advise NOT to begin that journey in a very remote comune [such as Subbiano or Cortona] or a small urban comune [such as Arezzo] unless you are fluent in Italian and have an understanding of how the processes work, the apps to use to get appointments, etc.
To begin with, as we explain in the article, once you get outside the large urban tourist centers, you will be leaving English behind. It is not simply hard to find an English speaker, it will be virtually impossible in some comunes.
The comune that I have been living is a bit smaller than Arezzo. There are 2 pharmacies in the entire comune, and none of the pharmacists speak a single word of English – just to give you an idea.
This also includes the comune officials you will have to deal with to secure your residency.
Moving to Italy is not simply securing the correct visa and finding where you want to live. Once you move into a comune you have to undergo the official residency process, which will require meeting with the comune official to do paperwork and registering your lease with the comune and the local police.
In a small comune, it is highly unlikely that he/she will speak English. Where I am, none of the comune officials or police speak any English.
Also, you will need to get a Codice Fiscale [one of the very first things you will need to do in your first week] which will require you to make an appointment via the app, and again, the official may not speak English if you are not going to a government office in a large city.
Also, small communes are incredibly disconnected from the surrounding areas by way of public transport.
Where I am, the closest larger city is a 45-minute drive by car or 6 hours [literally] by public transport. Not that they are all that bad, but all the small comunes essentially have a single route to the rest of Italy, and it’s not necessarily the shortest or quickest. There are no Uber-type services outside of the very large cities.
So if you don’t have a car, you need to be where you are well connected.
Also, keep in mind the taxation issue. As we point out in the article, Tuscany is not a flat tax region.
My two cents [as I have lived and traveled in and around Italy for several years] –
1: Understand what you need in your environment, including: weather, medical access, English speakers [especially medical and official people], monthly budget, etc.
Regarding weather, you can essentially draw a line connecting Naples to Bari. Below the line is virtually year-round sunshine. The farther above the line you go will be like moving from Virginia to Maine.
2: Start with a big city in your chosen region to get your feet wet. If you are dead set on Tuscany, then I would suggest Florence – it is a beautiful city with so much to offer, but it is expensive.
Keep in mind that European cities, especially Italy, all have green space, so you can live outside the city center of Florence and have less of an urban landscape.
3: To find an apartment, absolutely use a legitimate real estate service and nothing else.
4: Be aware that different regions have some quirks to the rental market, such as having to buy your own light fixtures – I know it’s weird. Discuss everything with your real estate agent – don’t feel as if any question is too weird or dumb to ask.
5: As you have never been to Italy before, be prepared for the shock of what Italy really is vs what American Italy is. There is no such thing as spaghetti and meatballs or chicken parmigiana 😁 That is American food. I say shock, as the fact that the real Italy is a million times better than what you think it is when living in the US.
Having said that, if you are looking for the US lifestyle, understand that only exists in the US. For example, in Italy [and most of Europe] there is no such things as 24-hour 7-day-a-week stores. Things are closed on Sundays, and in the small communes, such as the ones you mention, the stores close around 7:30 pm Mon-Sat.
Finally, this may or may not happen, but just be aware that the September 2022 elections have changed Italy’s political environment – potentially drastically or possibly not at all. As of now, it’s still a lot of talking, and not much happening, but it’s only been a few months. So, it’s worth noting.
Hope this has been helpful OldRanger. Best of luck and enjoy your journey into Italian life!
Julian – Global Talon
Explore, Experience, Engage
@Julian, thank you for all the information. I have lived in or around big cities most of my life here in the US, and I prefer smaller towns. Currently I live in central Arkansas where the closest town is about 25 miles away. I am in good health, I enjoy walking, I don’t mind having to do some work to fix up a place, etc. I understand that not speaking Italian is not good, especially in more rural areas. My thought was to take a couple of courses at a university or through a company known for its success in teaching. I don’t need a job (in fact I really don’t want a job), I just want a nice place to live quietly, able to have a garden, and get to know my neighbors. I have lived on both coasts of the US, as well as a couple of midwestern states, and in Texas. I would prefer more mild weather, but I’m not interested in snow or sweltering heat… however, I have lived in both types of environments and know how to deal with such. I might look at places that are less than 50,000 but more than a village… just depends on the “feel” of the place. Some places just “feel right” and others don’t.
Thank you very much for this very informative guide. Of the many towns you’ve listed which have the best town centers you can walk around with many shops and restaurants?
Hope all is well,
They are all pretty walkable with fantastic town centers. Florence and Pisa are the ones where you can find everything you need plus a great diversity of shopping and restaurants. Florence is one of the top walkable cities in the world. Siena is also great, but it’s much smaller. The traffic in the center of Siena is limited so it makes it easier to walk everywhere.
If you look for a truly small-town feel, the one that really stands out is Lucca. With its Renaissance bulwarks that surround the town on all sides, Lucca is made for walking. The town centre is great – Via Fillungo, the main shopping street has a great diversity of brands, and there are many boutiques selling hand-made leather goods. Piazza dell Anfiteatro is where you can find all the high-quality restaurants and cafes with outdoor seating – the best place for people-watching and a glass of wine.
Thank you very much, Ola!
Thank you for suggesting Lucca as we are looking for a small-town feel. Do you have one or two more suggestions as we would like to explore several small towns?
Hope all is well,
Good morning Team,
I wonder if you could advise. I have a friend whom owns a villa in Tuscany and due to the recent floods and mud slides she has had problems with the water to her villa, i.e no water, water that is dark brown in colour etc. She has already had her 20,000 water tank emptied and cleaned but still the problem exists.
Is there a board/company that services these problems as I have seen that there have problems in the past in Tuscany due to flooding, mud slides etc. over the years.
I would really appreciate your help/advice. If you have any reliable contacts or companies that can do a thorough inspection of the problem and know how to fix it, it would be most welcomed. She is at her wits end and doesn’t know where to turn to as she rents the property and lives abroad.
So I am trying to help her as much as I can.
Thank you in advance.
Sorry, we do not have any connections we know personally in Tuscany who can help with this. However, here are the water management companies in Tuscany that can help with emergencies and other problems depending on where your friend lives and who her water provider is:
1. Arezzo Nuove Acque
At: Via Montefalco 49/55, Arezzo (AR) – Tel: 800 391 739 https://nuoveacque.it/
At: Via del Gazometro 9, 57122 Livorno (LI) – Tel: 800 139 139, 800 010 303 https://www.asaspa.it/
At: Via Villamagna, 90/c, 50126 Florence (FI) – Tel: 800 314 314, 800 238 238, 055 686 2001 https://www.publiacqua.it/
4. Acquedotto del Fiora
At: Via Mameli 10, Grosseto (GR) – Tel: 800 887 755, 199 114 477 https://www.fiora.it/
At: Via Cardinale Pacini, Lucca – Emergency (24hr) – Tel: 800 983 389, 800 982 982 http://www.acque.net/
Hope this helps
Thank you so much Ola, I will pass it on.
Your help here is greatly appreciated by us both.
How has the Tuscany area been in dealing with the Covid-19 virus? We are newly retired in Michigan, USA and are looking into Southern EU countries. Thanks in advance for your reply.
Hi Michael, I hope you will find this useful: https://m.visittuscany.com/en/coronavirus/index.html
Thank you for some great insights to this beautiful part of Italy. My husband and I are looking to buy a place between Florence and Sienna. I would love to speak to any expats that have done this. How do I go about doing so?
The best way is probably to look for an expat forum in Tuscany. Or you can comment with your questions here, our Italy expert may be able to help you.