For decades, Croatia has been a favorite destination for expats and digital nomads, and our essential guide is everything you need to know about living in Croatia.
At the crossroads of central and southeastern Europe, Croatia is one of the European Union’s newest and youngest states.
Especially great for expat families or simply those with a budget, Croatia is one choice that provides a diversity of options.
Somewhat of a Cinderella story, today, Croatia is the crown of the Balkan peninsula offering a bit of everything there is to love about Europe.
Living in Croatia
Is Croatia a good place to live?
Living in Croatia has the feel of living in Italy with a landscape reminiscent of Greece along with the affordability typical of the Balkans.
With several international airports, ferry ports, and train and bus stations, Croatia is well-connected to the world.
Its 3600 miles/5800 KM of Adriatic coastline and over 1000 islands and islets provide dozens of amazing Blue Flag beaches, water sports, and superyacht marinas that will exceed the approval of any aquaphile.
Its seemingly untouched nature reserves and incredible biodiversity offer a landscape of purity that outdoor lovers could spend a lifetime exploring.
Its four well-matured wine regions produce superior wines such as the polished tannins of Dalmatia and the minerally wines of Istria, all of which complement Croatia’s unique gastronomic traditions perfectly.
The cosmopolitan urban centers are a juxtaposition of Croatia’s millenniums’ old culture and modern innovation providing the opportunity to live in virtually any era of history while never leaving the 21st century.
Is Croatia safe?
In 2019, Eurostat ranked Croatia as the safest European country.
The US State Department routinely ranks Croatia as Level 1.
Obviously, there is crime, but the overwhelming majority is petty, and violent crime is virtually unheard of.
Both locals and tourists, females included, repeatedly state they neither experience nor have issues or concerns walking alone, even at night.
Some leading LGBTQ+ sites call Croatia as gay-friendly as the US.
However, public displays of affection by the LGBTQ community are not recommended.
Is Croatia expensive?
Croatia is one of the most affordable European destinations, yet it is also fully capable of satisfying luxury tastes and lifestyles.
On average, a typical one-bedroom apartment in the city has a monthly rent of around $575/500€. However, this will often be an old building without an elevator.
New modern city apartments average $900/825€ a month for more chic accommodations.
Insider Tip: Annual leases can be difficult as many owners try to capitalize on the lucrative tourist season. Some owners raise the rent once the season begins. Ensure long-term agreements explicitly state the agreed monthly rent.
Depending upon usage, utilities average $100/90€ a month.
Groceries are reasonably affordable, and most larger stores have a basic variety of international products, but there are several international food stores as well.
A single person would average $100/90€ and a family around $275/250€ for a week’s worth of groceries.
Insider Tip: Most places close by 9 pm, earlier on Saturdays, and don’t open on Sundays. Also, most markets tend to rely on self-checkout and normally operate with one staffed cash register, which backs up quickly.
Internet coverage throughout Croatia is excellent and very reliable.
Internet with basic cable packages averages $35/32€ a month and includes international news and channels, with many English language channels, such as History, FOX, Nat Geo, and Viasat.
Monthly unlimited mobile data averages $28/25€ a month.
Public transport is very good, and tickets provide unlimited rides within a specific time frame, ranging from 30 minutes for $.60/.50€ up to monthly passes for $58/53€.
Other basic expenses average:
- Coffee and pastry – $3.65/3.35€
- Liter of petro/gas – currently capped by law at $1.70/1.50€
- Gym membership – $30/25€ a month
Thus, a single person could live well on a monthly income of $1200/1350€ and a family around $3000/2700€.
Shopping and socializing in Croatia
Croatia has numerous shopping options throughout the country, ranging from small boutique stores to large modern malls for budget and high-end brands.
A Saturday night out for dinner and drinks will average around $20-50/18-45€.
Unless of course, you simply enjoy KFC, Burger King, Dominoes, or McDonald’s.
Croatia also has 10 Michelin-starred restaurants in Zagreb and the Adriatic coastline.
Banks and crypto in Croatia
In 2020, Croatia joined the EU’s Exchange Rate Mechanism, hoping to adopt the Euro as soon as 2023.
Croatia’s banks are predominantly foreign-owned international banks and are considered one of the country’s strongest and most stable industries.
Bank-owned ATMs offer a significantly lower fee than other ATMs.
Insider Tip: ATMs offer to conduct transactions in USD, Euros, or Pounds, and the surcharge is astronomically high. The same is true for credit card transactions at restaurants, hotels, etc. Always conduct transactions in Croatian Kuna.
Currently, cryptocurrencies are virtually unregulated. There are three major crypto exchanges (considered reliable) throughout the country, including The Bitcoin Store.
Croatian post offices also operate as crypto exchanges, and Konzum, Croatia’s largest grocery store, accepts 11 different cryptocurrencies as payment online.
Taxes in Croatia
Foreign pensions are taxable income, but Croatia has tax treaties with numerous countries, including the US and UK, to buffer against some double taxation.
The tax regulations arent very straightforward.
Basically, you become subject to income taxes after 183 days in the country. However, the type of visa, location, passive income, pensions, etc. all factor into any tax liability.
For example, work income is tax-exempt with Croatia’s Digital Nomad Visa, but passive income is required to be reported.
Also, most residents have a tax rate of 12%, while Zagreb residents are taxed at 18%.
Simply stated, Croatia’s taxes are complicated and require professional assistance.
Healthcare and education in Croatia
Croatia has an effective nationalized healthcare system that is available, including COVID jabs, to anyone in the country.
In fact, healthcare in Croatia is ranked amongst the best in Europe and the world.
Among the 191 member countries of the World Health Organization, Croatia ranked 43, with the US at 37 and the UK at 18.
The very successful private medical sector makes Croatia a favored destination for medical tourism.
International schools are available in Zagreb and Split. These include American, British, French, and German schools offering kindergarten to 12th grade.
What is the weather like in Croatia?
Croatia is for those who love all four seasons.
Its blend of Mediterranean and continental climates produce 250 sunny days a year.
The downside is the other 115 days are wet, cold, and windy.
Summers are hot and typically dry along the Adriatic.
Winters are very cold but much milder in the coastal regions.
Zagreb has hot summers and cold, windy, and snowy winters; with average temperatures of 33 F/0 C in January and 71 F/22 C in July.
Split has a humid subtropical climate, and temperatures average in January at around 46 F/8 C and July at around 78 F/26 C.
Is Croatia a good place to retire?
Due to the low cost of living, high quality of life, excellent medical services, and being an EU member, Croatia is a good retirement option.
However, the country does not offer a retirement visa or many long-term options for non-EU citizens, and the available options are seemingly discretionary at best.
Additionally, as of January 2021, Croatia made the available visas even more restrictive by now requiring a criminal background check.
Retirement visa options
Most options are temporary and involve a short-term cycle of leaving Croatia, waiting out a return window, and then re-entering.
Also, some of these options require proof of passive income or savings (currently $6500/6000€ for one person and $10,000/9000€ a year for a couple), or even prepaying a year’s rent in full.
The two most common retirement routes for non-EU citizens are:
- Get a temporary residency visa, then a long-term visa, and finally apply for permanent residency, or
- Croatia’s residency and citizenship-by-investment programs.
Croatia’s citizenship-by-investment program is premised upon a minimum investment (currently $110,000/100,000€) either by buying property or registering/investing in a business and then living uninterrupted in Croatia for 8 years.
As with the tax system, these visas and the citizenship-by-investment programs can be complex and require hiring a professional to navigate through.
Croatia’s Digital Nomad Visa
Croatia has invested significantly to lure global digital nomads to the country.
In January 2021, Croatia introduced a Digital Nomad Residency Visa, but it is not for everyone.
The law states that the digital nomad must be a non-EU citizen who is:
- employed remotely, or
- owns and remotely operates a registered business
The digital nomad cannot be an employee of or earn money from a company in Croatia.
The visa can be issued for a stay of up to 1-year, but its actual duration is discretionary.
Also, the visa is not renewable, and digital nomads are required to wait for six months before re-applying.
Along with the application fee [currently $100/90€], the applicant must provide:
- Proof of monthly income of at least $2500/2250€ for the applicant with an increase of 10% for each family member,
- The applicant’s clean criminal record,
- International health insurance, and
- Proof of an address in Croatia.
Croatia’s Digital Nomad Visa does offer some features that other digital nomad visas don’t.
Croatia added a provision to provide for children’s education to attract families.
Also, only one adult in a family needs to apply, and if approved, all close family members can join the visa holder in Croatia.
Citizens with 90-day visa-free entry to Croatia, such as the US and UK, can apply at a Croatian embassy or a local police station after arrival.
All others must apply at their local Croatian embassy or consulate.
Coworking space in Croatia
As a direct result of the Digital Nomad Visa, coworking spaces have emerged all over the country.
Most major cities and many secondary urban centers offer some professional coworking space options.
Sail Croatia in Split has one of the most unique coworking options in the world, with a Digital Nomad Offer for a monthly rental of a full-serviced catamaran so digital nomads can work while floating on the Adriatic.
Where to live in Croatia
One of Croatia’s best features is its diverse selection of cities.
Zagreb, the capital, and the eastern city of Osijek are large modern urban and economic hubs that account for the majority of Croatia’s non-tourism-related industry.
Split, the second-largest city and largest coastal city, is a focal point for tourism and an intraregional transportation hub. The cities of Dubrovnik, Pula, and Zadar are hotbeds of tourism, culture, and history.
The islands and islets are unparalleled in the Adriatic, and while primarily focused on tourism, many have residential towns. Hvar is a magnet for the wealthy superyacht community. The entire island of Lošinj is considered a health and wellness retreat.
You can find a detailed guide to various locations in our Best Places To Live In Croatia guide.
Croatia’s pros and cons
Though Croatia has a lot to offer, all places have two faces.
The pros of living in Croatia
1. Communication is not a problem
Most Croatians are bi-lingual, and many are multilingual. English, German, and Italian are the most widely available secondary languages. Serbian, Czech, Bosnian, Hungarian, Slovak, and Romani are also common.
2. You can drink the water
You can actually drink tap water in Croatia. In fact, UNESCO places Croatia as one of the top 5 European countries for high-quality potable tap water.
The cons of living in Croatia
1. Croatian bureaucracy is a nightmare
Getting the simplest things done is nothing short of a project. While this can differ from city to city, in general, plan for headaches and for the system to operate very slowly.
2. Very restrictive visa schemes
Croatia’s visa scheme is limited and overly restrictive. It genuinely fails to address the country’s need for expats, as many Croatians emigrate to other EU states.
3. Smoking can be invasive
Easily Croatia’s biggest negative. Many bars, cafes, and restaurants, especially in Zagreb, permit smoking inside even though EU law prohibits it.
4. Accessibility is limited
Accessibility is a problem in Croatia, including in apartment buildings. Public transportation and new constructions are fairly accessible, and several beaches are fully accessible as well.
The government has been working towards national improvements, but the Adriatic cities that focus on tourism are currently the most accessible.
5. It’s in the Schengen Zone
On 8 December 2022, the Ministers of the 27 European Union states approved the admission of Croatia to the Schengen Zone beginning 1 January 2023. The Schengen Zone will now include 23 of the 27 EU members.
Thus, as most of Croatia’s long-term visa options require leaving the country, it means leaving the Schengen Zone altogether. Now the only opportunities for non-EU expats to wait out the 90-day return window and then return to Croatia without leaving the EU are Romania, Bulgaria, Ireland, and Cyprus – as they are the 4 remaining EU countries that are not in the Schengen zone yet.
Final thoughts on living in Croatia
Many of the things that expats and digital nomads look for in a destination are what Croatia is all about.
It can be described as some of the best Europe has to offer, as well as a genuine European experience on a budget.
Even though the initial phases of living in Croatia are a bit more challenging than in most other places, the end result makes it all worth wild.
You might find useful:
- The Best Places To Live In Croatia
- EU Golden Visa Guide – If you’re an investor looking for full EU residence, see our latest guide.
- Didn’t find what you were looking for or need further advice? Comment with your question below and we will do our best to help.
Helpful external links:
- Information for British citizens moving to or living in Croatia – gov.uk.
- Croatia travel information for U.S. citizens – travel.state.gov.
- e-Citizens, a central point for all public sector information and services in Croatia.
Monday 15th of May 2023
Considering retiring to split Croatia. How difficult is it for expats from US. How is private healthcare and is it expensive for expats? What are requirements for obtaining a long term visa? Thank you for any information you can provide
Tuesday 16th of May 2023
@Patty, Hello Patty- Thank you for reading our article about Croatia and contributing to our knowledge base.
So, your questions require rather complex answers. There isn’t the simple straightforward solution that I believe you are looking for.
In regards to obtaining Croatian visas – it is very difficult for everyone to get them, but more so for non-EU citizens.
To begin with, in order to stay in Croatia – as a non-EU citizen – for more than 90-days, you need a long-term visa.
The requirements for the visa are the typical stuff and these apply to everyone that will be an applicant on the visa form – 1. An FBI background check – they will not accept a state-level check 2. Birth, marriage, divorce, etc. 3. Proof of health insurance that will cover you in Croatia
The first two categories of documents must have an apostille from the US.
All documents must be translated into Croatian and the translation must be certified.
Remember, in order to be approved for a visa, your passport must have a minimum of 3 months validity remaining – but they can demand more due to the fact you are considering living there long-term.
Now, on 1 January 2023, Croatia joined the Schengen Zone so there were updates to their visa regime – some of which are still in progress.
I cannot stress this enough, you need to contact the Croatian embassy/consulate in DC/NY/LA/Chicago for all current info that is relevant to US citizens at the time you are considering beginning the process.
Unfortunately, Croatian bureaucracy is not very efficient so expect many delays and ‘miscommunications’ however the US-based personnel may be better than those in Croatia.
You can initiate the visa process in the US – but just so you know, before Croatia joined the Schengen Zone, many people would travel to Croatia, enter on the 90-day tourist visa, and then began the process at the police station.
This was because, once you file the paperwork for your visa, you can stay in Croatia until they reach a decision.
But, as things have changed/are changing, I cannot speak to whether the police in Split will still do that.
If you plan to submit your application in Croatia, then you will also have to provide documents such as a notarized rental lease that is good for at least 1 year, and you need to apply for the OIB – tax number.
You will need a translator to communicate with everyone at every office for this official stuff.
The police officer can require proof of funds, so be prepared to provide proof of your retirement income.
Just be prepared for the LONG wait and all the issues that WILL arise – including the possibility that you may need to leave every 90 days and remain outside of the Schengen Zone for 90 days before you can re-enter.
Unfortunately, the visa regime in Croatia is not very efficient, esp. for non-EU citizens.
As a side note - keep in mind the EU is scheduled to launch its e-visa system - ETIAS - in 2024.
All non-EU citizens [including US citizens] will require entry approval to the EU via the ETIAS system in order to travel to the EU - including Croatia.
This visa approval is completely separate from the visa you will need once in Croatia.
In order to be eligible for the long-term visa in Croatia, you have to provide proof of health insurance that will cover you in Croatia.
So, you need to determine if your current health insurance will do that, and if so, the company will provide you with a visa letter to submit with the visa application.
If it will not, then you need to pay for an international health insurance policy that will cover Croatia.
As a US citizen, you need to do that in the US with a US company. Health insurance policies are controlled by citizenship.
There are people that claim you can purchase private healthcare as a foreigner in Croatia, and you can if you have permanent residency. There are even US insurance companies in Zagreb.
I have never found a credible company willing to work with foreigners who do not have permanent residency in Croatia.
The health care in Croatia is very good actually.
As far as cost, that all depends upon where you go and what you need to have done. With that said, your jaw will probably drop when you realize how affordable high-quality health care really is.
In my personal experience in many scenarios throughout Europe, if you get a policy with a high deduction or co-payment, you will probably never use the insurance and just pay for the services out of pocket. For me, paying has always been cheaper than using the insurance.
The best private healthcare is in Zagreb.
Health insurance is a legal requirement for everyone in Croatia and you are not eligible for the free healthcare system unless you have permanent residency – so you will need to have an international policy as a US citizen until then.
I hope that helps a bit. As I said, the best course of action at this time is to contact the embassy or consulate nearest to you.
Thanks again for contributing to our knowledge base and enjoy your retirement, Patty!
Julian – Global Talon Explore, Experience, Engage
Friday 10th of March 2023
General inquiry, but seriously considering relocating to either Costa Rica or Croatia.
Where do most expats live? Are they generally employed, own Croatian businesses?
Friday 10th of March 2023
Hello Traeci – Thank you for reading our article about Croatia and contributing to our knowledge base. I must admit, this is a very interesting selection of choices 😜. It may be the first time Croatia has had to compete with the tropical wanderlust of Costa Rica! As of 1 January 2023, Croatia joined the Schengen Zone and the Eurozone, and these are big changes for the expat / digital nomad communities in Croatia. Previously, the non-EU expat / digital nomad presence was very fluid – moving in and out of Croatia to reset the EU visa clock. Now, that is no longer possible. Even though they were in Croatia for half the year, they were not seeking residency etc. So, they were not opening businesses, by and large. And the Croatian digital nomad visa prohibits making Croatian-sourced money. As far as the EU expat population goes, the only factor that has changed is Croatia’s move toward the euro. With that said, most EU expats live in the Adriatic region to take advantage of the coastal lifestyle at a more affordable cost and usually as a retirement option. So again, not really opening businesses, but living on pensions, etc. However, I expect those prices to climb now as they become based on the euro economy. So, to answer your question, most expats are living on an income that is generated from outside Croatia. There are some expats in the capital city, Zagreb, which is a nice city, but it is definitely not for anyone trying to escape winter. Hope that helps Traeci Julian – Global Talon Explore, Experience, Engage